Apa itu iBT TOEFL?

Mari dijelaskan dengan sederhana.

iBT TOEFL itu singkatan dari Internet Based Test TOEFL, jadi ya TOEFL yang pakai internet. Kita mengerjakan soal TOEFL di depan komputer yang terkoneksi internet. Tapi, gak bisa asal pake leptop sendiri terus konek ke internet, kita harus test di tempat yang sudah dapet izin untuk iBT TOEFL. Kalau di Jogja, contohnya Real English atau CILACS UII.

Skor di iBT beda. Rangenya dari 0-120, beda sama PBT TOEFL yang rangenya 0-670.

Materi tesnya, beda juga lho. Kalau PBT TOEFL ada listening, structure, reading. Kalau di iBT structure gak ada, cuman reading. Jadi, iBT ada empat komprehensi, yaitu:

  1. Reading
  2. Listening
  3. Speaking
  4. Writing

Yak, jadi di iBT, selain kita dituntut untuk bisa bahasa inggris secara pasif (listening & reading) juga bisa bahasa inggris aktif (speaking & writing). Untuk lebih lanjutnya, dibahas di post selanjutnya.

Distance Learning or Classroom Learning?

Without question, classroom learning would help students to get more good relations to the Professor since they could simply ask their problems right within the class. Classroom learning is also a common and globally implemented way of learning in most of Universities. However, personally I agree with the assertion that distance learning and online computer classes should replace classroom learning. This opinion is based on ideas such as cost to go to a lecture; enjoying a class; and making your time more efficient.

First of all, it will reduce the cost to go to a lecture. While spending money to go to campus for a lecture can be fine for some people, I think for majority of students whose campus is far from their house, they are more likely to choose take an online class rather than spending money and time just to come for a lecture. Consider, for example, you are a college student who live with your family and your house is very far from campus. If you are about to go to campus for a 30 minutes of lecture, you will have to take bus for 60 minutes and spend money about 3 dollars. I don’t think that it is fair for a contition like that, since it takes longer time in the way to campus than the time you will be in a class.

In addition to the cost to go for a  lecture, distance lerning could make student enjoy the learning process in their own circumstance more than conventional class. It is true that recent modern class would be air conditioned, clean, and clear. However, this doesn’t guarantee that students will enjoy more in this situation. This condition would be making the students bored because they are forced to attend the lecture in the same room over and over again. From my own experience, I didn’t enjoy learning in such condition. I was forced to join the class in a same room whole semester. But, I could enjoy my self while I was learning the same materials for a course back in my own room.

Finally, alongside the issue of cost and enjoyment, students would be making their time more efficient. Of course, for some cases, classroom learning could deliver an efficient way of learning. However, for those who do, distance learning is a more efficient way of learning. In distance learning, you have flexibility in arranging your time. From my own experience, I could utilize my spare time in distance learning. I will take around 90 minutes for a conventional classroom learning, but I will spend 30 minutes less in an online class. Eventually I could make benefits from that more 30 minutes to, for example, read more papers or books related to that class.

My consideration of the issue of distance learning has explored factors such as spending money, enjoying the class, and making time more efficient. These considerations lead me to agree with the statement that distance learning and such an online computer class sould replace the conventional classroom learning.

National Services

Personally, I agree with the statement that all young adults should be required to do some sort of national service.

To start with, it leads the country to develop, especially in the developing country. While national services would cost the country’s money to carry out this program, essentially there are lots of way to develop a country. But this works requires thousands of resources including natural resources and human resources. Natural resources could boost a coutry by providing enough energy to light up the whole area. National services are a good way to utilize young and productive human resources to build up the country. For example, I was involved in an occasion to promote Indonesian tourism when I lived in Japan. This action tries to expand the country’s tourisim globally. In order to accomplish this movement, they need tens of young adults to help them carrying out this program. Just after this work finished, I heard that lots of foreign people are willing to go to Indonesa for ther vacation and I believe this would help my country to develop more in terms of tourism.

In addition, it also helps the young adult to learn more about value of life. These days, educational curriculums are impossible to teach and to create a great human character because college’s curriculums are only focusing on technical things. Thus, it is likely that young adults are not well educated in terms of human character, including value of life. I felt that I am afraid to join the worklife because I was just prepared technically in the college. But this was just before I joined the national service couple years ago. In this national service, I was forced to live in a rural society for two months. I didn’t enjoy the facilities there and I really wanted to go back in my town. Eventually, I enjoyed that life and I learnt about value of life while I was continuing my services there.

Finally, community service would also help the rural society towards a better life. I heard from people in a society where I lived for two months for a national service that they are glad because they’ve got lots of benefits from young adults lived in their village. They repaired the road, built a new sign marks, carried out a economic seminar, and so on. These days, remote areas need more attention to help them build up their remote village. The goverments are also trying the best solution to develop those rural area but this is not enough. National services would likely be one of the solutions to overcome this problem.

To sum up, these considerations led me to agree with that assertion that young adults have to do some sort of national service.

The Carrying Capacity of an Environment

The passage mainly presents about carrying capacity including details and descriptions. The professor supports this arguments and gives an example about a population of wolves.

20 years ago, there was a massive population of rabbit but the wolves were low in terms of population. The population of wolves was not yet fulfilling the carrying capacity and rabbits were the primary sources of wolves’ food. This supports the argument in the passage alleging that relative richness of resources causes a variable number of organism.

The passage later describes when the population of organisms hits the carrying capacity, the excess organisms either have to leave or perish. The professor also says the same way that eventually when the population of wolves hits the carrying capacity limit, the wolves will starve or leave that habitats.

Then the population of plants, the food sources of rabbit, will increase as the population of rabbit goes down. Finally both the passage and the professor describes that this would lead to the rise and fall of carrying capacity.